St. Peter’s Cathedral the oldest building of the Vatican. Is this true?
The oldest building in Vatican city is St. Peter’s Basilica. It is considered, that it was erected in the fourth century during the reign of Constantine the Great, and subsequently rebuilt. However, it is not. Historians themselves recognize that Constantine the Great ordered to put on the grave of St. Peter a very different Church Basilica, of which nothing remains. It is reported that soon after it was built it was badly damaged. Blame for this was allegedly the first Pope Damasus, who ordered to dig channels in the district. As a result of the construction of the Basilica began to direct the streams of water, which destroyed the Church. It is interesting that, despite this, Pope Damasus was canonized. In the Vatican is named in his honour was the court of St. Damasus.
After the destruction of the first Church Basilica was built here the Cathedral of St. Peter. Which many consider to be very ancient. However, it was built in the sixteenth, seventeenth centuries. In 1628 he was consecrated by Pope urban the sixth. But was there ever the first Church of the Basilica? Look at some old pictures, which depicted the Vatican in the sixteenth century.
St. Peter’s Basilica and the analysis of its antiquity
Here, for example ancient fresco 1537-1541, located in the Castel Sant’angelo in Rome. It depicts the theatre Bramanti running down the hillside and connects the papal Continue reading
The ancient Egyptians have left monuments which to this day amaze scientists for its giant size. The most significant monuments of ancient Egypt are the Great Pyramids. These grandiose structures built with solid stone blocks weighing up to two hundred tons each, surprise and enchant its grandeur all who have seen them. Significant role in this play and the fact that the secret construction of the pyramids lost in the mist of centuries.
Recent studies have shown that ancient Egyptian kings, who wanted to leave behind lasting traces of their power and inimitability and commanded to build powerful structures, guided, possibly, a single purpose — to shake the imagination of future civilizations and put them at an impasse regarding construction techniques. Now almost does not matter whether the pyramids built by the labour of hundreds of thousands of slaves or, as some suppose, with the help of extraterrestrials, one thing is certain — the mystery of the Egyptian pyramids will live forever. More than one generation will break my head on finding out the majestic buildings. Although in recent years a theory according to which the pyramids were supposedly built not by the Egyptians.
The most ancient civilization in the world
Where there were first ancient civilizations, as they were called, had achieved what was in their basis – all of these issues are already many hundreds of years before historians and scientists. Also in dispute is the fact that what civilization considered first.
Still, it is not known what kind of civilization can be called the very first, as not all the facts of our history is well known. Scientists argue about which of the ancient civilizations can be attributed to the first.
In currently known facts, scientists have compiled a list of civilizations of the planet that formed among the first. Next, we consider some of them.
The civilization of the aborigines of Australia
Some scientists believe the ancient civilization of the aborigines, which had evolved in isolation on the Australian continent. This way of life could not fail to influence their traditions, customs and culture. It is known that the aboriginal tribes consisted of one hundred – one hundred fifty people, all connected by a very complex system of kinship. In each tribe all were equal. For many years, the civilization of the aborigines was considered primitive. In fact, their culture is quite rich, but completely incomprehensible to us, because poorly understood. This unique culture is now in decline due to the invasion in Australia of the British. Their cultural heritage, most likely, will not be able to return.
Civilization Continue reading
Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli )  .
The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions Continue reading
The main images of the sculptures of Gothic cathedrals
The Gothic Cathedral represented a distinctive collection of religious transfigured realities of the world. In it his life’s struggle, conflict, sorrow, and suffering people, compassion and love, hatred and anger acted in sculptural compositions, transferring the images of different gospel stories, such as the scourge of the Patriarch job, the persecution of the Martyr cruel pagans, crying the mother of God on the crucified Christ.
When choosing subjects, how and when the distribution of images, the wizard created a giant Gothic sculptural complexes, obeyed the established Church rules. Together ancient sculptures. located on the facades of cathedrals, gave a clear view of the universe that took place in accordance with religious beliefs.
As a rule, Central portal, located on the West facade, dedicated to Christ or the Madonna; the left – hand portal is a Saint, venerated in certain dioceses, and the main portal of the Madonna.
On the pillar separating the doors of the Central portal is in two parts, installed a large statue of the Madonna, Christ or a Saint. On the pedestal often appeared the statues representing the seasons or “months”. The slopes of the walls were decorated with monumental figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, and old Testament characters. Sometimes, there seemed to plots Continue reading