The history of ancient art
Funerary structure: the first manifestations
The temples of Karnak and Luxor are amazing examples of monumental Egyptian architecture. In the case of Karnak, the speech can go not about the temple itself, but about a wide range of buildings of a sacred character, which had been building for centuries at the behest of various pharaohs, including Queen Hatshepsut, amenemhat III, and SETI I. Ramses II and Ramses III. View his Pocket, clearly demonstrating the large size of this complex and which, in addition to its planimetry, we can note a widespread use of stone as a building material
The king was the representative of all the people, the intermediary between people and gods. When you save the life of the king preserved it for all other groups. Continued the annual cycle of the Nile with its spill. Funeral rites has gained importance as rulers to know and also experienced the desire to have a tomb similar to the tomb king, which would ensure them eternal life. Therein lie the origins of the development of mastabas, the characteristic form of burial architecture of the upper classes. If the cemetery is, in principle, were within the limits of cities and towns, with the adoption of the cult, aims at eternal life, Maccabi began to group, forming streets with proper planning. These streets were developed in these cities of the dead, far from city centres. At the same time, was crystallized three principles which in the future will become mainstream in the funeral and that will remain unchanged throughout the history of Egypt: permanent preservation of the ashes of the deceased, the necessity that the material of the tombs were imperishable, and feeding me, so it could exist.
Since the third dynasty began the construction of the necropolis of Saqqara West of the city of Memphis, in the Nile Delta, where there was a burial of high-ranking officials. Then was introduced the mastaba as a model of the tomb, gradually increasing its size and complexity. Mastaba are tombs dug in the rocky soil, on which is erected a brick room with slanted walls and decorated with bas-reliefs. As a rule, they consisted of two separate parts: the burial chapel, and burial vault. Under the chapel was located the burial chamber, which was subsequently incorporated into the interior. Because the burial vault was a underground space, access to it was through a vertical trench, crossing the stone grave and Zamora-vivalist behind the tomb. Thus was protected the sarcophagus with household utensils, and offerings needed for the afterlife of the deceased.
Initially, an external structure of mastaba was completely solid, and the chapel was adjacent to the Eastern part of the burial ground. When the chapel was incorporated into the interior from the third dynasty mastaba gradually evolved into a more complex structure. The burial chamber was supplemented with various offerings, until they reached a vast number of areas.
In the vicinity of the other mastabas were located, a secondary cemetery. They were the tombs of servants who were sacrificed to continue to serve their masters in the other life. The largest number is concentrated in the mastabas of Saqqara, and in Giza, although in its historical and typological development they do not represent any unified form and structure and there are various types with similar structure.
The presence of mastabas perpetuates, even in death, class distinctions that exist in Egyptian society. In contrast to the poor funerary structures of the majority of the Egyptian population, mastaba dignitaries present the funeral were mansions with many iconic spaces, richly decorated with wall paintings. In it were listed the titles and the virtues possessed by the deceased, and reproduce scenes of everyday life. Replicated the statue of the deceased, raspredelenie on the premises, so that visitors could admire them.
The first great burial structure
Built by Imhotep for the provision of shelter the tomb of Pharaoh Djoser, the founder of the third dynasty, the great funerary structure gathered in a single complex all buildings and premises, necessary for worship, which was carried out for the continuation of life after death. This is the first case, when the idea of eternal life finds its architectural expression. So, many of the decisions served as a model for later funerary structures. King Djoser was able to stand above the priests and to create a centralised absolutist politics of nature in all Egyptian territory. He imposed the adoption of the cult of the Sun, RA, with absolute supremacy over the other gods. There was a change in the divine nature of the monarch. The king was no longer a son or a representative of the gods, as an integral part of the divine.
This architectural ensemble is a rectangular structure, surrounded by two-kilometer perimeter wall. Inside it contains a stepped pyramid and complex of tombs. Wall height of 10 m along its entire length detects rectangular vertical flute, which is a copy in the lime stone walls, uncovered in earlier times of sun-dried bricks. She has fourteen fake and one real door. Through it provides access to a narrow corridor, the elongated passage; it can get into indoor space, consisting of three bays, separated from each other by columns with flutes. The columns embody in stone the types of trunks that Dodin socialist buildings were load-bearing support. The Central span is lifted over the side, which makes possible the presence of small holes for the penetration of natural light. In the side spans of the columns attached to the wall, as in the original buildings of the Egyptians did not allow the possibility of having free support. For this reason, the columns perform a symbolic and not a tectonic feature.
Hypostyle hall beauty and variety of the columns represents one of the original spaces with the highest artistic achievements. The complex Joe-sulfur are the forms of columns, which are stored in architecture from all historical periods, as, for example, columns leaning against the walls of the building on the North side and mimic the stems of the papyrus with trunks of columns of triangular section and co-Lollobrigida capitals. Inside the building is some yards, like the squares, on both sides of the pyramid. On the South side of the big yard is suitable for the administration of ritual career of the Pharaoh, which demonstrates to his subjects that he was still quite fit and have sufficient energy to continue her reign. Inside the courtyard, located on both ends of the longitudinal axis, are located several buildings: the North is a small altar with the slope and the temple; on the South — building with a Foundation in the shape of a V. The step pyramid, was built to hold the ka of the king, represents not that other, as a conglomeration of one to another of six mastabas to give greater monumentality and save on a harmonious level of proportion in relation to the great wall. Subsequently, the cavity between the various terraces were filled up again, which marked the beginning of a characteristic pyramid shape. Under the pyramid is the burial chamber, which contained a sarcophagus and funerary utensils, with other adjacent rooms, connected by a corridor in the shape of a maze.