The architectural styles of Spain
The architectural styles of Spain
On the territory of this unusual country are almost all styles of world architecture. Roman monuments, austere Gothic cathedrals, magnificent buildings of the Renaissance and Baroque… In many cities are widely represented Catalan art Nouveau. In particular, the unique creations of the genius Antonio gaudí and Cornet, which are intertwined in several architectural styles – from Romanesque to plateresque: let us recall the Church of Sagrada de Surname in Barcelona.
In the architecture of fortresses and castles, churches and cathedrals, all sorts of historical buildings and homes that are located in ancient cities, declared a world heritage by UNESCO, reflects the different, sometimes very unusual options for creative expression of their creators.
Ancient Roman architecture is well represented in Tarragona. This is the first Roman city on Spanish soil, the ancient capital of Catalonia, the second largest port. Here are preserved the fortified wall of the III century BC amphitheatre for Gladiator fights, circus Maximus, arch of Bera, the remains of the tower of Scipio, the Christian Necropolis, the devil’s bridge aqueduct and Cathedral of Santa Maria.
In their architecture the Romans sought to emphasize strength, power and greatness of the Empire. For structures characterized by monumentality lush decoration of buildings, a lot of jewelry, the desire for strict symmetry, the interest of the parties to the utilitarian architecture, to create not mainly temple complexes and buildings for practical purposes. Roman architects developed new design principles, in particular the widely used arches, vaults and domes along with columns used columns and pilasters. Later, in the Middle ages came the Romanesque style – great – great- (and so on) the great-grandson of Roman architecture.
Renaissance or Renaissance (FR. Renaissance, ital. Rinascimento) – epoch in the history of European culture, replacing the culture of the Middle ages and the earlier culture of the New time. Approximate chronological framework of the era – the XIV-XVI centuries.
A characteristic feature of this epoch – the return of architecture to the principles and forms of ancient, mainly Roman art. Of particular importance in this regard is given to symmetry, proportion, geometry and order parts, as illustrated by the surviving examples of Roman architecture. The proportion of the complex of medieval buildings is replaced by an ordered arrangement of columns, pilasters and lintels, to replace the asymmetric shape come semi-circular arch, hemisphere domes, niches, Edicule.
In each of thirteen cities UNESCO has the knowledge built in the Renaissance style. In Alcala de Henares for example, some parts of the ramparts, convents of Madre de Dios and San Bernardo, the house-Museum of Miguel de Cervantes, the oldest outdoor theatre and others.
Mudéjar is a distinctive form of architecture developed during the blending Moorish shapes with the compositional techniques of Gothic and Renaissance. In the XV and XVI centuries, this style is created Mudejar (Spanish Mudéjar, from Arabic, “madagan” – tamed, home) – the Muslim people who remained in the Iberian Peninsula, conquered by the Spanish States during the Reconquista. Original Mudejares were allowed to keep their lands, laws and customs, to profess Islam. With the fall in 1492 the Emirate of Granada forcibly began to convert to Christianity: from that time on they were known as Granada.
For buildings of the Mudejar style characterized by patterned brickwork, horseshoe arches, vaulted ceilings, forming a star, artesonado ceilings (wooden ceilings with inlaid coffered, often decorated with carvings and paintings), the rich decor of colored tiles and carving alabaster and knock. One of the most important monuments of this style is the tower with brick borders that are on the most famous in Spain granite ramparts of Avila.
The Gothic style originated between the Romanesque and Renaissance periods and covered almost all areas of medieval culture. It originated in Northern France and later spread to Spain and other countries of Europe XII-XV centuries.
Spanish Gothic began to take shape approximately to the XIII century. Its development was uneven due to the territorial fragmentation of the country, the influence of individual regional traditions and the influence of Arabic art. Basically the style was manifested in ecclesiastical architecture the secular architecture has remained faithful to the Moorish tradition. Several Gothic techniques has brought the Cistercians (Catholic monastic order): the shape of the ribs of the vault, arches and the use of Lancet arches, and Moorish was the interpretation of the Gothic style in which arches are based on cross-shaped arch located between them is eight-pointed openwork star. In Seville’s Cathedral, located on the site of a mosque, a bell tower is a former minaret.
The Cathedral of Avila in architecture from the Eastern facade contains elements Dating back, most likely to French Gothic. The Cathedral in Cuenca also has a pronounced Gothic character: moldings, high arches hexagonal, leaf ornament on the capitals. One of the first Spanish churches that follows the architecture of Gothic cathedrals of France, was the Toledo Cathedral (1226).
Later, we began to form an independent view of the Spanish Gothic style, whose main difference from the classic European – style breaking of isabelino the Moorish architecture and Mudejar style using the achievements of late Gothic. Isabelina (Spanish Gótico isabelino, “Isabelline Gothic”, Reyes Católicos el gótico, the “Gothic Catholic kings”) – the direction of Gothic architecture, which emerged in Spain in the XV–XVI centuries during the reign of Queen Isabella of Castile (1474-1505) and her husband Ferdinand of Aragon (“the Catholic monarchs”). Striking examples of this style – the monasteries of San Juan de Los Reyes in Toledo and Sao Tome in Avila.
Plateresque. At the end of the XV century there appeared a purely Spanish architectural style, has embraced the French Gothic, Italian Renaissance, Moorish ornaments of all kinds and have exceptionally ornate stone carvings. It is called “plateresque” (jewelry), and features many of the finest architectural designs, the extremely detailed forms and having ploskostei, carpeted.
Without affecting the structures of buildings in General, the plateresque decoration was originally applied to late Gothic and later Renaissance form. In the early plateresque motifs combined Gothic and Mudejar; in the later plateresque (from the first half of the sixteenth century) include a lot of ornamental motifs of the Italian Renaissance (garland, medallions…) as well as order items, making order, but not alter the overall impression of picturesqueness.
Masters of the plateresque stone created huge paintings on the walls. In the style of plateresque did and artware. The best preserved of them is the Golden tabernacle for religious relics in the form of towers that can be seen in the cathedrals of Santiago de Compostela, Seville and Toledo. They were created by the family of Harfe.
Baroque (ital. barocco – “strange”, “bizarre”; the port. perola barroca – “pearl of irregular shape”; there are other versions of the origin of this word) is a characteristic of European culture XVII—XVIII centuries Baroque as an architectural style was widely used by the Counter-reformation in Church building and stood out for its lavishness. However, it has spread in the countries of not only Catholic but also Protestant and Orthodox. The Baroque is distinguished by large-scale colonnade, the abundance of sculptures on the facades and in the interiors, volutes (forged elements of the ornament), a large number of rastrapovich (small protrusions or a jog in the line of the facade), with bow fronts with rastrapathi in the middle, rusticated columns and pilasters, the dome complex (often multi-tiered), as well as telamone (Atlanta), caryatids and mascarons.
In the Spanish Baroque architecture had its own interpretation. The churrigueresque style, named for Spanish architect josé Benito de Churriguera and his brothers, was shown in the decorative design of facades and interiors and was a development of the principles of the Baroque in the spirit of increased emotionality, unusual architectural forms, fractional and chaotic elements of plastic decoration. In Salamanca, for example, near the University there are two related churches: the New Cathedral (Cathedral Nueva) and the Old Cathedral (Cathédrale Baha). Their construction involved the brothers themselves Churriguera.