Art. Architecture. Gothic
The Gothic architecture of Spain
In the XIII century in Spain is the most fierce struggle with the Arabs, as well as enhanced internal struggle of the Spanish people – the feudal lords and the citizens, had had the king’s participation in cortech. In the Gothic era, the most actively formed Spanish culture, Spanish language, is Spanish epic, a kind of paths the development of architecture and fine arts.
The Gothic architecture of Spain has a great diversity of local forms, due to differences in socio-economic and cultural patterns in different regions. Not less clearly revealed and some common features, characteristic of Spanish Gothic architecture. Within this style of unity quite clearly are two of the circle of monuments that were created in Castile and Catalonia.
One of the features of Spanish Gothic overall — free violation of a strict constructive logic of the building is particularly affected in the appearance of the Spanish cathedrals. Originally conceived in accordance with the French samples of the facade and the portals were often left unfinished, and in the body of the Cathedral without a specific plan has grown countless chapel and sakristii, many of which were created in the following epochs. The building is spread wide, lost in the same vertical aspiration.
Spanish Gothic architecture is also characterized by a peculiar relationship of walls and decoration. Spain dominated by a smooth wall surface, decoration, concentrated in the form of large saturated spots ornament, achieves, especially in later times, extraordinary, even excessive luxury. This architectural effect, based on the play ornamented planes, in all probability backed by the traditions of Oriental architecture, becoming a characteristic of all the subsequent history of architecture in Spain.
Close to the monuments of the French Gothic Cathedral in león (early 13th century -1303). its Builder, architect Enrique apparently knew the cathedrals at Amiens and Reims. León Cathedral creates a holistic, structurally clear impression (especially because its facades are left free so usual in Spain late additions). It is the only Gothic cathedrals of Spain, the walls of which are almost wholly occupied with the large Windows with colorful stained-glass Windows. This, however, the most slender and harmonious in its proportions of the Spanish cathedrals seem compared to French harsh and heavy. Its main facade with exposed-clearly clearly marked volumes is much more static. The sculptural decoration of the Cathedral, where there are a number of remarkable works, on the whole, however, does not play such an active role in the creation of synthetic artistic image, as in the buildings of France.
Other outstanding buildings of the early Spanish Gothic architecture — the Cathedral in Burgos (1221-1567) — produces a very picturesque impression. The Cathedral was built on a hillside, so the portals are at different heights, and an extensive cloister made bunk.
Third largest building of the early Spanish Gothic Cathedral in Toledo (about 1227-1493). In his archives preserved the names of all the architects and sculptors who worked here for over 250 years; judging by these records, the first Director was the architect Pedro Petry. As in Burgos, with only a small area you can see the main facade of the Cathedral, in late Gothic architecture mixed motives with the motives of the Renaissance.
On the Iberian Peninsula, Arab culture permeates European culture of the middle ages. In Andalusia the combination of features of Gothic jugoistocnoj system with local traditions and peculiarities gave rise to a rather peculiar art.
Born into a particular style of “Mudejar” . combines the Gothic, and the art of the Arab East. Delicate Moorish eight-pointed star is assembled on the arches over Christian cathedrals Gothic nervure. The frame does not always triumph over the wall. Luxurious facades of the famous cathedrals of the XIII century in Burgos and Toledo. Its Grand Seville Cathedral, built in the early XIV century on the site of an Arab mosque, a bell tower, converted from minaret, grown more in width than up, he really resembles a mosque.
Such churches, usually built by architects-the Arabs of brick with arched Moorish overlap, forming in plan an eight-pointed star, with wooden mosaic ceiling, with arch of horseshoe shape, sometimes with a Lancet end. the main element in the decor of colored tiles and ornate stucco work. The main compositional center of such structures is the courtyard. Thus, in the style of “Mudejar” with mutual national and religious hatred we are seeing the fruitful interweaving of cultures.
Synthesis of sculpture and painting, the Gothic style embodied in the Spanish altars, altarpiece, decorated with painted panels and a carved wooden sculpture raskrashennoy.