Gothic in France
Gothic in France
The stages of development of Gothic architecture
Gothic is an artistic style that emerged in the mid-twelfth century in France and spread in Western, Central and partly in Eastern Europe. Gothic completed the development of European medieval art and arose on the basis of the achievements of Roman culture. The term “Gothic” became established during the Renaissance to refer to all medieval art, which was considered “barbaric”. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
The leading place in the art was Gothic Cathedral, around which was concentrated the life of the citizens. Structural basis of the Cathedral served as a frame of pillars and based on them Lancet arches. The imposition of outside structural elements that support the cross vault, has created an enormous, incommensurable with the person the space of the interior. The walls of the Cathedral were cut huge Windows with colourful stained glass, which in the mysterious gloom of the interior glowed bright red, blue, yellow colours, creating a special spiritual atmosphere. The aspiration of a Cathedral is stressed up huge openwork towers, high pointed arches, portals and Windows, numerous elongated statues, rich decorative details. The unprecedented height and size of the Cathedral towered above the city and can sometimes accommodate its population. All this has had the strongest emotional impact on believers.
The Gothic Cathedral is ideally suited to synthesis of arts: sculptures, stained — glass Windows of the main types of Gothic painting, decorative art (stone carving, wood, bone, etc.). The portals and the altar were completely decorated with statues, sculptures, ornaments, fantastic figures of animals (“chimeras”). The best statues of saints and allegorical figures were marked by deep spiritual beauty. Ossification and isolation of Romanesque sculpture gave way to mobility, rhythmic richness of the plastic of the figures, their orientation to each other and to the viewer.
Special attention to human and his emotions, reflecting the complex drama of life, the tragic scenes of suffering and death was given in the art of late Gothic(XIV-XVI centuries).This time was marked by the rapid development of urban construction, construction of town halls, shopping malls, palaces, mansions, residential buildings. All of them were decorated with sophisticated décor, emphasizing the vertical lines. Symbolic-allegorical story of art combined with new spiritual aspirations, broadened interest in the real world, nature and, as a consequence, spread of sculptural and painted portraits and landscapes, characterized by individual traits, spirituality and sublimity of the images.
The Gothic epoch — the heyday of portrait miniatures, enamels, art weaving, decorative silverware, precious stones, ivory etc. the Gothic style became a unified ensemble artistic household items, furniture, clothing, jewelry and architecture.
In the art of organically intertwined Gothic lyricism and emotions of tragedy, the sublime spirituality and social satire, the fantastic, the grotesque and accurate observations of life.
Outstanding works of Gothic architecture in France (Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, the cathedrals at Reims, Amiens, Chartres); in Germany (Cathedral in Cologne); England (Westminster Abbey in London), etc.
Interest in reality, observation and study of nature, to human feelings and characters, the increasing role of the personality of the artist, the fame of the names of the authors of the great works of the XV century. — all this prepared the ground for the Renaissance worldview. In the XV-XVI centuries in Gothic replaced by the Renaissance.