THE FAMOUS MUSEUMS OF THE WORLD
The Tehran carpet Museum
The Tehran Bazaar is a kind of city within a city, with its own laws, customs and traditions, with its own philosophy and their way of life is an infinite maze of dim-vaulted galleries and passages. Here and in the twentieth century still dominates the middle ages, often from head to toe wrapped in a dark cloth the woman, heard the sharp cries of barkers and the sound chasers silver and copper. Here you can meet sellers and buyers the most different cities and villages of Iran speaking a variety of dialects and dialects. Heated debate, an unstoppable waterfall of news. At the Tehran Bazaar you can find everything your heart desires mosaics of Shiraz and unique fabrics clothing domestic and imported, colorful and bright fabrics, fur coats, embroidered fancy gold lettering, circle the gleam of copper dishes, vases, jars and the dazzling Shine of jewelry.
And, of course, the carpets, because present-day Iran (formerly Persia) — a country classic Oriental rugs. As well as the most probable place of their origin, because the Iranian tradition of carpet weaving have their roots in the ancient artistic creation of people. From time immemorial due to its uniqueness, elegance designs and high quality they are used the world over. Their women wove at home, in the spring, preparing for marriage or waiting child. Then washed, dried and sent to the honorable) place in the house.
There is something in common between carpet and Oriental music, every curl, as the melody is woven into the overall design. Carpets, like music, create different mood, there are sad and joyful, disturbing or relaxing. Antique carpets are priceless. That’s why it’s painstaking restore master their unique ornament.
The carpet Museum is located in Lala Park in the heart of Tehran, and perhaps he is one of the few museums of this kind. In its halls, where it is always full of tourists, presents rugs of different schools and styles, in particular, Isfahan, Kushan, Kum, germanskie, Tabriz, Shiraz. The casual buyer may not notice the difference between a beautiful germanskim carpet and an equally beautiful carpet Kushan. However, they are as different from each other, how wonderful poem from Saadi no less beautiful verses of Hafiz.
A gracious guide will tell you that when evaluating any carpet attention primarily drawn to its pattern. Iranian carpet, for example, always has a ‘closed’ arrangement, limited by a border, which consists of several bands of ornament of different widths.
The main motives of carpet arabesco form a pattern consisting of a complicated intertwining plant stems, flowers and leaves, among which are the figures of animals and birds. Most often, the pattern of the Iranian carpet is a decorative way of blooming nature, spring garden. In General, the patterns of carpets are chosen for a variety of floral designs, scenes from Palace life, portraits of rulers and famous poets, as well as miniature copies of the illustration of the famous poetic works — “Shahnameh” of Ferdowsi, “Golestan” and “Bustan” of Saadi and others.
With the advent and dissemination in Iran Islam began creating new patterns that use such design elements as the mihrab and Minbar, minarets and domes of mosques. These carpets were called moralnymi, they usually covered the floors of the mosques. A small pad to make prayer trying to buy every Muslim.
Iranian artist uses rich color scheme — dozens of colors with huge variety of shades. The unique beauty of colour gives the pile of wool and silk, sometimes with the addition of gold and silver. The pile is not only velvety surface of the carpet, it is also the richness of tone and shades of color.
The Museum will tell and show you how to knit knots “Georges and Senna”, on their number per square decimeter: the more knots, the more expensive the carpet. In silk rugs the number of knots per square decimeter sometimes exceeds eight thousand, so they are the most expensive. But they have excellent quality: these carpets will not deteriorate, will not wear, will RUB half a century. If they survive this period, they become “Antiques” and their price is even greater. At the carpet Museum you can see several of these “Antiques” that are the pride of the Museum.
At another booth is a different exhibit, because the carpets are and in what combinations in their manufacture wool, cotton, silk, flax, hemp and jute. In the Museum you can know that wool obtained from camel’s, sheep’s or goat hair, it is different advantages — short, relatively thin, long and glossy. And this largely depends on the area in which the animals are bred. And even from that part of their body with which this wool is sheared. And, of course, from the candle!
Many of the secrets of carpet weaving will reveal to the curious observer stands at Tehran carpet Museum. For example, the use of vegetable pigments. Some of them are able in dyeing to give such a deep and soft tone, that even at high intensity not seem to be luring. And depends a lot from the climate and the nature of the soil on which they grow dye plants. The dyeing recipes are still secret professional skills, are inherited, as all craft of cunning.
The oldest of all Iranian carpets with a pattern was discovered in glacier gorge Pazyryk near the Russian-Mongolian border. And found Russian Professor S. I. Rudenko. This carpet is now called “Pazirik”, its length is two meters, width — 184 cm. Studies have shown that it was woven in the era of the Achaemenid kings Cyrus and Darius (558-330 BC). “Pazirik” is now kept in the Hermitage, but it is clear evidence of the 25-century-old history of the Iranian carpet weaving.
At the Tehran Museum and the world’s first surround the carpet that has created a craftsman from Tabriz. A carpet woven in one piece in the form of a bowl of rose water. The height of the carpet — 45 cm, diameter is 15 to 165 centimeters. The master used to work 11 racks of their own manufacture. For the manufacture of atur were taken forty-flowers, flowers and rose bushes, and the base of carpet stitched with gold thread. Cover the bowl this carpet is made in three colors of the flag of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The manufacture of this carpet Iranian craftsmen took three years, and after that he decided to create a carpet on a new story — “Tree of life”, which was inspired by the turquoise tiles of the “Blue mosque” in Tabriz.