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Gothic letter

Gothic letter

Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli ) [1] .

The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions the Dutch refused to fracture during the Dutch revolution. the English and the Scots during the English revolution. the Swedes during the “era of freedom” in the middle of the XVIII century. in Norway and Denmark fractures until the late nineteenth century. in Germany until the mid XX century. although antique has been actively used since the late nineteenth century .

From the sixteenth century Gothic letter were gradually replaced by fonts on the basis of Antiqua. close to the modern; for the longest time (until 1918 and partly to 1945 ) Gothic continued in Germany and in Latvia (the Latvian language officially was translated from blackletter to Antiqua in 1926, and German editions in Latvia and Estonia continued to be printed in Gothic letters and then). Gothic fonts were widely used in Germany until the beginning of XX century. but were banned during the Third Reich in 1941. Now the fonts based on the Gothic font used for decorative purposes, and also for some mathematical symbols.

Gothic fonts

General view of Gothic symbols is determined by using as a writing instrument goose feathers. cropped diagonally. The writing edge in most cases at an angle of 45° to the baseline of the row. The letters are very tight, and mistrikova width of intervals is equal to the width of the strokes — this is due to the need to conserve expensive parchment (hence the English name in Gothic letters: eng. blackletter ). Extensive use of ligatures and abbreviations.

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