The most ancient civilization in the world
Where there were first ancient civilizations, as they were called, had achieved what was in their basis – all of these issues are already many hundreds of years before historians and scientists. Also in dispute is the fact that what civilization considered first.
Still, it is not known what kind of civilization can be called the very first, as not all the facts of our history is well known. Scientists argue about which of the ancient civilizations can be attributed to the first.
In currently known facts, scientists have compiled a list of civilizations of the planet that formed among the first. Next, we consider some of them.
The civilization of the aborigines of Australia
Some scientists believe the ancient civilization of the aborigines, which had evolved in isolation on the Australian continent. This way of life could not fail to influence their traditions, customs and culture. It is known that the aboriginal tribes consisted of one hundred – one hundred fifty people, all connected by a very complex system of kinship. In each tribe all were equal. For many years, the civilization of the aborigines was considered primitive. In fact, their culture is quite rich, but completely incomprehensible to us, because poorly understood. This unique culture is now in decline due to the invasion in Australia of the British. Their cultural heritage, most likely, will not be able to return.
Civilization Continue reading
Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli )  .
The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions Continue reading
The main images of the sculptures of Gothic cathedrals
The Gothic Cathedral represented a distinctive collection of religious transfigured realities of the world. In it his life’s struggle, conflict, sorrow, and suffering people, compassion and love, hatred and anger acted in sculptural compositions, transferring the images of different gospel stories, such as the scourge of the Patriarch job, the persecution of the Martyr cruel pagans, crying the mother of God on the crucified Christ.
When choosing subjects, how and when the distribution of images, the wizard created a giant Gothic sculptural complexes, obeyed the established Church rules. Together ancient sculptures. located on the facades of cathedrals, gave a clear view of the universe that took place in accordance with religious beliefs.
As a rule, Central portal, located on the West facade, dedicated to Christ or the Madonna; the left – hand portal is a Saint, venerated in certain dioceses, and the main portal of the Madonna.
On the pillar separating the doors of the Central portal is in two parts, installed a large statue of the Madonna, Christ or a Saint. On the pedestal often appeared the statues representing the seasons or “months”. The slopes of the walls were decorated with monumental figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, and old Testament characters. Sometimes, there seemed to plots Continue reading