The most ancient civilization in the world
Where there were first ancient civilizations, as they were called, had achieved what was in their basis – all of these issues are already many hundreds of years before historians and scientists. Also in dispute is the fact that what civilization considered first.
Still, it is not known what kind of civilization can be called the very first, as not all the facts of our history is well known. Scientists argue about which of the ancient civilizations can be attributed to the first.
In currently known facts, scientists have compiled a list of civilizations of the planet that formed among the first. Next, we consider some of them.
The civilization of the aborigines of Australia
Some scientists believe the ancient civilization of the aborigines, which had evolved in isolation on the Australian continent. This way of life could not fail to influence their traditions, customs and culture. It is known that the aboriginal tribes consisted of one hundred – one hundred fifty people, all connected by a very complex system of kinship. In each tribe all were equal. For many years, the civilization of the aborigines was considered primitive. In fact, their culture is quite rich, but completely incomprehensible to us, because poorly understood. This unique culture is now in decline due to the invasion in Australia of the British. Their cultural heritage, most likely, will not be able to return.
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The main images of the sculptures of Gothic cathedrals
The Gothic Cathedral represented a distinctive collection of religious transfigured realities of the world. In it his life’s struggle, conflict, sorrow, and suffering people, compassion and love, hatred and anger acted in sculptural compositions, transferring the images of different gospel stories, such as the scourge of the Patriarch job, the persecution of the Martyr cruel pagans, crying the mother of God on the crucified Christ.
When choosing subjects, how and when the distribution of images, the wizard created a giant Gothic sculptural complexes, obeyed the established Church rules. Together ancient sculptures. located on the facades of cathedrals, gave a clear view of the universe that took place in accordance with religious beliefs.
As a rule, Central portal, located on the West facade, dedicated to Christ or the Madonna; the left – hand portal is a Saint, venerated in certain dioceses, and the main portal of the Madonna.
On the pillar separating the doors of the Central portal is in two parts, installed a large statue of the Madonna, Christ or a Saint. On the pedestal often appeared the statues representing the seasons or “months”. The slopes of the walls were decorated with monumental figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, and old Testament characters. Sometimes, there seemed to plots Continue reading
In the library there was a presentation of the book “fortresses of Novgorod the Great”
On 25 October in the reading hall of the regional universal scientific library there was held a meeting with the authors of the book “fortresses of Novgorod the Great” Lyudmila Andreevna Philippi and Ninel Nikolayevna Kuzmina, known in Novgorod and outside researchers of architectural monuments of our city.
Second and enlarged edition was published in 2012 in Saint-Petersburg, publishing house “Faces of Russia” with support of Committee of culture of Novgorod region. The publication contains new information and publications supplied with many illustrations, including archival funds of Russian state historical archive, the State research Museum of architecture. A. V. Schusev, the archives of the Novgorod scientific and restoration management, and others. In a book published the author’s reconstruction and drawings that enable to visually represent the shape and evolution of the fortifications of Novgorod in different historical periods. The authors emphasize that “sixty years ago scientists did not know much about the weapons of the fortress of Novgorod. From annalistic sources of the more famous military history, and the architecture remained blank. Only in the last Continue reading