Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli )  .
The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions Continue reading
The main images of the sculptures of Gothic cathedrals
The Gothic Cathedral represented a distinctive collection of religious transfigured realities of the world. In it his life’s struggle, conflict, sorrow, and suffering people, compassion and love, hatred and anger acted in sculptural compositions, transferring the images of different gospel stories, such as the scourge of the Patriarch job, the persecution of the Martyr cruel pagans, crying the mother of God on the crucified Christ.
When choosing subjects, how and when the distribution of images, the wizard created a giant Gothic sculptural complexes, obeyed the established Church rules. Together ancient sculptures. located on the facades of cathedrals, gave a clear view of the universe that took place in accordance with religious beliefs.
As a rule, Central portal, located on the West facade, dedicated to Christ or the Madonna; the left – hand portal is a Saint, venerated in certain dioceses, and the main portal of the Madonna.
On the pillar separating the doors of the Central portal is in two parts, installed a large statue of the Madonna, Christ or a Saint. On the pedestal often appeared the statues representing the seasons or “months”. The slopes of the walls were decorated with monumental figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, and old Testament characters. Sometimes, there seemed to plots Continue reading
In the library there was a presentation of the book “fortresses of Novgorod the Great”
On 25 October in the reading hall of the regional universal scientific library there was held a meeting with the authors of the book “fortresses of Novgorod the Great” Lyudmila Andreevna Philippi and Ninel Nikolayevna Kuzmina, known in Novgorod and outside researchers of architectural monuments of our city.
Second and enlarged edition was published in 2012 in Saint-Petersburg, publishing house “Faces of Russia” with support of Committee of culture of Novgorod region. The publication contains new information and publications supplied with many illustrations, including archival funds of Russian state historical archive, the State research Museum of architecture. A. V. Schusev, the archives of the Novgorod scientific and restoration management, and others. In a book published the author’s reconstruction and drawings that enable to visually represent the shape and evolution of the fortifications of Novgorod in different historical periods. The authors emphasize that “sixty years ago scientists did not know much about the weapons of the fortress of Novgorod. From annalistic sources of the more famous military history, and the architecture remained blank. Only in the last Continue reading