Features of Gothic script
Gothic letter — collection letter Latin handwritings of the middle ages. Appeared in the XI century, replacing the Carolingian uncial letter.
Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli).
The name (from the “barbarian” people ready, in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance, who considered such fonts are “barbaric” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns, Estonians, Latvians, and so D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated Continue reading
St. Peter’s Cathedral the oldest building of the Vatican. Is this true?
The oldest building in Vatican city is St. Peter’s Basilica. It is considered, that it was erected in the fourth century during the reign of Constantine the Great, and subsequently rebuilt. However, it is not. Historians themselves recognize that Constantine the Great ordered to put on the grave of St. Peter a very different Church Basilica, of which nothing remains. It is reported that soon after it was built it was badly damaged. Blame for this was allegedly the first Pope Damasus, who ordered to dig channels in the district. As a result of the construction of the Basilica began to direct the streams of water, which destroyed the Church. It is interesting that, despite this, Pope Damasus was canonized. In the Vatican is named in his honour was the court of St. Damasus.
After the destruction of the first Church Basilica was built here the Cathedral of St. Peter. Which many consider to be very ancient. However, it was built in the sixteenth, seventeenth centuries. In 1628 he was consecrated by Pope urban the sixth. But was there ever the first Church of the Basilica? Look at some old pictures, which depicted the Vatican in the sixteenth century.
St. Peter’s Basilica and the analysis of its antiquity
Here, for example ancient fresco 1537-1541, located in the Castel Sant’angelo in Rome. It depicts the theatre Bramanti running down the hillside and connects the papal Continue reading
The ancient Egyptians have left monuments which to this day amaze scientists for its giant size. The most significant monuments of ancient Egypt are the Great Pyramids. These grandiose structures built with solid stone blocks weighing up to two hundred tons each, surprise and enchant its grandeur all who have seen them. Significant role in this play and the fact that the secret construction of the pyramids lost in the mist of centuries.
Recent studies have shown that ancient Egyptian kings, who wanted to leave behind lasting traces of their power and inimitability and commanded to build powerful structures, guided, possibly, a single purpose — to shake the imagination of future civilizations and put them at an impasse regarding construction techniques. Now almost does not matter whether the pyramids built by the labour of hundreds of thousands of slaves or, as some suppose, with the help of extraterrestrials, one thing is certain — the mystery of the Egyptian pyramids will live forever. More than one generation will break my head on finding out the majestic buildings. Although in recent years a theory according to which the pyramids were supposedly built not by the Egyptians.