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Gothic letter

Gothic letter

Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli ) [1] .

The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions Continue reading

Underground city of Derinkuyu

Underground city of Derinkuyu

Underground complex of Derinkuyu is located in the same village (ancient name – Melagobia, Turkish – Manenguba, which means “deep well”) is 30 km South of Nevsehir in Cappadocia (Turkey).

The complex is a large eight-level underground city, with a depth of about 85 m, the largest city cleaned today in Turkey, covering an area of about 1,500 sq. m. According to archaeologists currently open only 10% of this ancient city. Only five levels deep in the past, here was large enough to accommodate and lead a life of approximately 20 thousand people together with their products for life, and even livestock.

Derinkuyu was opened in 1963, and in 1965 he was available for inspection by tourists. The city was built probably in the VI-X centuries. It is known that 8-km-long tunnel linked the ancient underground world of Kaymakli – one of the largest underground cities, but at the moment, the tunnel is impassable because of debris.

The entrance to the cave is located in one-story building among the plateau at a height of 1355 m above sea level.

In the city you can see the rooms, chapels, vent pipes, wells, halls, stables for livestock, barns, schools, kitchens, wineries, Continue reading

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