Funerary structure: the first manifestations
The temples of Karnak and Luxor are amazing examples of monumental Egyptian architecture. In the case of Karnak, the speech can go not about the temple itself, but about a wide range of buildings of a sacred character, which had been building for centuries at the behest of various pharaohs, including Queen Hatshepsut, amenemhat III, and SETI I. Ramses II and Ramses III. View his Pocket, clearly demonstrating the large size of this complex and which, in addition to its planimetry, we can note a widespread use of stone as a building material
The king was the representative of all the people, the intermediary between people and gods. When you save the life of the king preserved it for all other groups. Continued the annual cycle of the Nile with its spill. Funeral rites has gained importance as rulers to know and also experienced the desire to have a tomb similar to the tomb king, which would ensure them eternal life. Therein lie the origins of the development of mastabas, the characteristic form of burial architecture of the upper classes. If the cemetery is, in principle, were within the limits of cities and towns, with the adoption of the cult, aims at eternal life, Maccabi began to group, forming streets with proper planning. These streets were developed in these cities of the dead, far from city centres. At the same time, was crystallized three principles Continue reading
Gothic (it. gotico – letters. Gothic, svyazannye with a Germanic tribe is ready) – an artistic style that emerged in the mid-twelfth century in France and spread in Western, Central and partly in Eastern Europe. Gothic completed the development of European medieval art and arose on the basis of the achievements of Roman culture. The term “Gothic” became established during the Renaissance to refer to all medieval art, which was considered “barbaric”. Gothic art was a cult on purpose and religious topics. It appealed to higher forces of the divine, of eternity, of the Christian worldview.
The leading place in the art was Gothic Cathedral, around which was concentrated the life of the citizens. Structural basis of the Cathedral served as a frame of pillars and based on them Lancet arches. The imposition of outside structural elements that support the cross vault, has created an enormous, incommensurable with the person the space of the interior. The walls of the Cathedral were cut huge Windows with colourful stained glass, which in the mysterious gloom of the interior glowed bright red, blue, yellow colours Continue reading
5 interesting facts about the underground buildings of the world
1. The first underpass for pedestrians was built in Babylon
The history of the underground tunnels on which the people could, without danger to life to move in the right direction, has not even one thousand years. According to the researchers of the ancient world, the first crossing was built in 2180 BC in the Babylonian Kingdom by order of Queen Semiramis.
The transition took place under the river Euphrates, and for its time it was quite a large building: the length of the crossing together with approach slopes was about eight or nine hundred meters.
Since then, located in the bowels of the earth transitional pedestrian crossings for people have become commonplace. Pedestrian tunnels appeared under many major rivers, for example, under the London Thames: famous Greenwich tunnel, which is based on cast-iron pipe of three hundred and seventy meters, leads to Dog island at a depth of about fifteen meters. And two years ago in the vastness of Kenya appeared first underpass for elephants: now African animals can easily cross the busy road.
2. The world’s first underground bike Parking in Japan
Underground Parking for cars in the world, where the shortage of urban space is felt particularly acutely, have long moved from the category of luxury to the category of need. Continue reading