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Gothic letter

Gothic letter

Since the beginning of the printing appeared inlaid Gothic fonts — famous Gutenberg Bible was typed variant textures. In Italy, the first printed book with Gothic letters appeared in 1473. (these were the works of H. de Torquemada and R. Caraccioli ) [1] .

The name (from the “barbarian” people ready. in fact had nothing to do with this font) was proposed in the XV century figures of the Italian Renaissance. these fonts are considered “barbarian” and Roman protivopostavlyalsya their writing. In the Romanesque and Eastern European countries, Western Christian, Roman type was adopted immediately, however, the German peoples (and peoples under the cultural domination of the latter — the Finns. the Estonians. Latvians and so on D.) for the same reasons, began to be applied Fraktur (a type of Gothic script), with fractures clearly were opposed to the serif font as a different system of writing and has never been used for writing in languages where the Gothic letter was not accepted (for example, German-Latin, German-French or German-Czech texts (dictionaries, bilingual or Glossa ) written in Fraktur to Antiqua and German for Latin, French or Czech). In further rejection of the fracture was associated partly with the bourgeois revolutions Continue reading

Master images of Gothic cathedrals

The main images of the sculptures of Gothic cathedrals

The Gothic Cathedral represented a distinctive collection of religious transfigured realities of the world. In it his life’s struggle, conflict, sorrow, and suffering people, compassion and love, hatred and anger acted in sculptural compositions, transferring the images of different gospel stories, such as the scourge of the Patriarch job, the persecution of the Martyr cruel pagans, crying the mother of God on the crucified Christ.

When choosing subjects, how and when the distribution of images, the wizard created a giant Gothic sculptural complexes, obeyed the established Church rules. Together ancient sculptures. located on the facades of cathedrals, gave a clear view of the universe that took place in accordance with religious beliefs.

As a rule, Central portal, located on the West facade, dedicated to Christ or the Madonna; the left – hand portal is a Saint, venerated in certain dioceses, and the main portal of the Madonna.

On the pillar separating the doors of the Central portal is in two parts, installed a large statue of the Madonna, Christ or a Saint. On the pedestal often appeared the statues representing the seasons or “months”. The slopes of the walls were decorated with monumental figures of apostles, saints, prophets, angels, and old Testament characters. Sometimes, there seemed to plots Continue reading

Underground city of Derinkuyu

Underground city of Derinkuyu

Underground complex of Derinkuyu is located in the same village (ancient name – Melagobia, Turkish – Manenguba, which means “deep well”) is 30 km South of Nevsehir in Cappadocia (Turkey).

The complex is a large eight-level underground city, with a depth of about 85 m, the largest city cleaned today in Turkey, covering an area of about 1,500 sq. m. According to archaeologists currently open only 10% of this ancient city. Only five levels deep in the past, here was large enough to accommodate and lead a life of approximately 20 thousand people together with their products for life, and even livestock.

Derinkuyu was opened in 1963, and in 1965 he was available for inspection by tourists. The city was built probably in the VI-X centuries. It is known that 8-km-long tunnel linked the ancient underground world of Kaymakli – one of the largest underground cities, but at the moment, the tunnel is impassable because of debris.

The entrance to the cave is located in one-story building among the plateau at a height of 1355 m above sea level.

In the city you can see the rooms, chapels, vent pipes, wells, halls, stables for livestock, barns, schools, kitchens, wineries, Continue reading

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